Nanotechnology used in Drug Delivery
When cells can’t carry out the jobs needed of them by our bodies, the result’s illness. Nanobiotechnology analysts are searching for methods to permit artificial systems take over straightforward cellular activities when they are absent from the cell.
This needs transport systems that may encapsulate medicines and other substances and release them in a controlled fashion at the perfect moment. The transporter must be ready to have interaction with the environment to get the signal to unload its load. A team controlled by Frank Caruso at the School of Melbourne has now developed a microcontainer that will hold thousands of individual “carrier units”a “capsosome”. These are polymer capsules in which liposomes have been embedded to form subcompartments.
Now , the first type of nanotransporter used for drugs is the capsule : Polymer capsules form stable boxes that are semipermeable, which allows for communication with the encircling medium. However, these are not acceptable for the transport of little molecules because they will be able to escape. Liposomes are good at defending tiny drug molecules ; however, they are regularly unstable and impermeable to substances from the environment.
The Australian analysts have now mixed the benefits of both systems in their capsosomes. First, a layer of polymer is deposited onto little silica spheres. This polymer contains building blocks changed with cholesterol.
Liposomes that have been stuffed with an enzyme can be safely anchored to the cholesterol units and therefore attached to the polymer film. Afterwards , more polymer layers are added and then cross-linked by disulfide bridges into a gel by way of a specifically developed, awfully gentle cross-linking reaction.
In the final step, the silica core is etched away without damaging the sensitive load. Experiments with an enzyme as model load demonstrated the liposomes remain intact and the load does not escape. Addition of a detergent releases the enzyme in a functional state. By way of the enzymatic reaction, which causes a color change of the solution, it was feasible to identify the quantity of liposome compartments to be about 8000 per polymer capsule.
“Because the capsosomes are biodegradable and nontoxic”, claims Brigitte Staedler, a senior analyst in the group, “they would also be appropriate for use as resorbable man-made cell organelles and for the transport of drugs.” in addition, the scientists are planning to encapsulate liposomes crammed with different enzymes together and to provide them with particular “receivers” which would permit the individual load to be released in a focused fashion. This would give the opportunity to use enzymatic reaction cascades for catalytic reaction processes.